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Message de disraeli posté le 02-05-2014 à 10:18:59 (S | E | F)
Voici la présentation que je compte faire pour l'oral d'anglais si je tombe sur la notion "lieux et formes de pouvoir".Je vous serais infiniment reconnaissant de me dire ce que vous en pensez et de m'indiquer mes fautes si vous le voulez bien. Merci pour votre aide!
I am going to talk about the notion of places and forms of power. First, I would like to give a definition of power. Power is the
ability to control others and to make things happen despite obstacles, resistance, or opposition. In our societies the power is directly related to the concept of democracy, “Government of the people, by the people, for the people” as Lincoln said in his famous sentence. Democracy is intrinsically linked to the United States and its implementation requires a civic culture, men to embody it and symbolic sites of power. The American democracy has evolved, it is influenced by other powers, including the risks that entails.
We will study at first the traditional foundations of American democracy, and then we will study the new powers that modify it.
In 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville were sent by the French government to study the American prison system, he gives a new analysis of democracy which he defined as a “social state” characterized by the process towards the equalization of conditions.
American society offers all citizens the opportunity for social success and personal achievement, it is the idea of Self Made Man. Lincoln, one of the most important presidents, a towering figure in the US history embodies this ideal. We have seen in the movie “Young Mr. Lincoln” the fact that Lincoln was self-educated, he comes from the poor background. Lincoln was born in a log cabin, between and yet he becomes the head of state! He embodies self-reliance, self-improvement. It comes from the people and served the people. The idea of the nobility of hard work is deeply rooted in Anglo-Saxon culture.
A democracy is based on institutions that have generally their headquarters in the capital. It is interesting to note that the capital of the USA is not its largest city, New York, but a considerably smaller one – Washington DC. Size is less important than symbolism. In this respect we have seen in the movie “Mr. Smith goes to Washington” symbolic sites of power as the Washington Monument, the Congress, but especially the Lincoln Memorial. The memorial is made to look like a temple. Lincoln is a god like figure, he unites all Americans no matter how old they are, no matter what the color of their skins, no matter who they are, he embodies Americans democratic ideals: freedom, equality. SO this is an important place of democratic power.
Transition: You know, the media have taken an important place (maybe too much) in the political and democratic life, as well as finance that pulls the strings too often.
The video of the Guardian is a good example of the power of the media. We have seen the participative journalism and social networks. Politicians occupy a prime position in the news, and during debate many citizens give their views on tweeter. The concept of the media or press as a fourth branch stems from a belief that the news media's responsibility to inform the populace is essential to the healthy functioning of the democracy. We can see the growing weight of social networks, the desire of more and more people to express their opinions, to take an active part in the making of information. On their website it is possible for readers to post comments on current events, to exchange views with others readers. The independence and impartiality of the media is problematic because many are owned by powerful industrial groups.
Transition: The powers that be use the media to control the public in their favour.
This is particularly the case in “1984”, a novel which was written by George Orwell in 1948, he talk about the period he lives in the cold war. One of Orwell’s astute observations about politics and society that forms the axis around which his novel 1984 is that the media have an incredible degree of influence with respect to shaping thought. The use and misuse of journalism as an instrument of propaganda is one of the central motifs in Orwell’s 1984. The primary consequences about which Orwell worried because of media manipulation were individuals’ loss of a critical thinking faculty and the diminished capacity for self-expression. Orwell’s novel was warning, of sorts, against a government and a society that robs its citizens of their capacity for critical thinking and reasonable, authentic self-expression.
Conclusion: So we could see that American democracy is based on institutions, values born with it and always assume a strong symbolism. It is however strongly influenced by the power of media and finance; it is to be linked with a deregulated system. Orwell was right to be concerned about these issues, and so should his contemporary reader.
Modifié par lucile83 le 02-05-2014 12:46
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