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Message de poulpouille2 posté le 18-12-2018 à 00:41:05 (S | E | F)
je vais passer à l'oral cette semaine et j'aimerais savoir s'il n'y a pas de grosses erreurs dans ce que je vais dire. Voilà ce que j'ai préparé et merci d'avance pour votre aide! Je précise que ce n'est pas forcément structuré étant donné que c'est un oral donc je souhaiterais avoir des corrections surtout au niveau des fautes d'anglais, merci beaucoup!!
I’m going to talk about the article « Collective Forgetting And The Symbolic Power Of Oneness : The Strange Apotheosis of Rosa Parks » written by Barry Schwartz. He is Professor of Sociology at the university of Georgia and he mainly studied collective memory.
In this text he explains why oneness is needed and what consequences it has on society and on people’s mind.
I will explain the two main concepts : oneness which is the idea of recognizing one individual’s performance and to ignore others, even those who have performed as well as or better than the one acclaimed.
And collective forgetting which is what individuals don’t remember, information unrecorded and uncommemorated. It is about what people forgot but also what they have never known.
He asks different questions in his work : « Why is her renown as great as it is ? »
-Why other men or women who did as much or even more than her are uncommemorated
« What does society gain from their oblivion »
- He wonders if people are unwilling or unable to remember it.
In his work he doesn’t use interviews to see what people remember or not but he uses a symbolic aspects that is to say the words, images or objects by which people remember her. He also links a scientific and a social explanation.
First, he starts by giving a scientific explanation. He states that long term memory is almost infinite but short time memory needs very few information and one task at a time to perform efficiently. We often try to simplify the information, to remember only the essential, that is what we called selective memory. For example, the “best” in one category is better remembered than the second best, we often remember presidents but few vice-presidents, because it is easier to remember one person than two. It follows the idea that « winner-take-all ». (However, it is not the case for experts who will know more than the average person)
According to him oneness has two functions: Society needs oneness to represent ideals and oneness also simplifies an event or a period of history for a better understanding.
First, oneness has a moral function by giving examples of ideals. He gives a definition of « ideals » which is a « standard of perfection ». That is why it has to be represented by one person only. The singularity is needed or it looses its legitimacy. It has to be unique. That is why the gap between ordinary and extraordinary people needs to be exaggerated.
It is also a way to simplify information for a better understandig. I quote : « the tendency to simplify complex historical information into one event or the achievement of one person.” Here the story of Rosa Parks contributes to simplify the Montgomerry bus boycott. She is needed to understand the movement and without her it would more vague. Indeed we are more sensible to concrete objects (Rosa Parks) than to abstract concept (civil right movement). Ortner talks about a «summarizing symbol»
I will now talk about the case of Rosa renown and the unrecognition of the others. Many men and women did like her but are now unrecognized. He quotes Bernice Barnett who calls them the «invisible leaders». Again, they are unknown for the general public, not for experts or scholars. He gives several examples of women who did the same and whose acts had great importance, for example, Irene Morgan in July 1944 who refused to go to the back of the bus travelling from Virginia to Maryland. And the Supreme Court ruled segregation in interstate travel to be unconstitutional. He also talks about Claudette Colvin, Aurelia Browder, Mary Louise Smith and Suzi McDonald who were arrested, convicted and fined for their refusal to go to the back of the bus before Rosa Parks. He also talks about the importance of attorney Fred Gray who brought] legal suit against the city which led to the Browder v. Gayle case and to the desegregation of buses in Montgomerry. Rosa Parks was not one of the plaintiffs in that case but she was the one who were asked to pose for a photograph in the front of an integrated bus.
So why Rosa Parks has been chosen as a symbol? The NAACP first thought that the youngster, Claudette Colvin would have been a great symbol but she was 15 and was said to be pregnant, for Mary Louise Smith, her father was alcoholic so it was considered as less likely to raise indignation. That is why the symbol chosen was Rosa Parks, a working and married woman, a NAACP secretary, non controversial plaintiff already known and liked by the black community. However, he says that her arrest played a minor role in the boycott’s history. Compared to those whose houses were bombed and the black attorneys for example. He says «she had no part in the front line of battle».He is very critical against the fact that her importance in the movement has been exaggerated
He takes the example of Graetz and Fred Gray who were part of the Montgomery Improvement association and who were exposed to harrasment and threats.
He also emphasises the role of the media. He gives relevant numbers for example he says that in December 1955, 21 articles mentioned Rosa Parks but for the entire year of the boycott there was no mention of other bus resisters. He also talks about the places named for her that is to say, "21 streets in 14 states and 32 public and commercial establishments in 13 states “No one comparable site is named for the other bus segregation resisters ». He insists on the unfairness of the unrecognition and the forgetting of the others.
He explains that Rosa Parks renown becomes even more important as decades passed, especially when she died. For example: the first row of seats on all buses remained empty, a statue was erected and her remains were placed in the US Capitol Rotunda which is usually reserved for presidents, statesmen and military heroes.
He highlights the important role of commemoration and its difference with history. History texts talks more Claudette Colvin,... whereas commemorative media barely recognise them. « For most people, commemoration alone tells who is worth remembering and why ». It shows the impact of commemoration and the fact that the Montgomerry bus boycott is remembered through Rosa Parks and Martin LK mainly, will create the forgetting of the others. Again, he makes a clear distinction between history and memory. When he says: « Promoting attachment rather than enlightment ».
He clearly considers it as unfair.
At the end he talks about resentment of the forgotten. For example, Colvin who inspired the movementt, the son of Aurelia Browder « My mother has been all but forgotten » and ED Nixon even said that he’s been robbed
Albernathy also says that many of Martin Luther King's ideas originated with him. Here, Barry Shwarts really emphasises the unfairness of the exaggeration of Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks prestige
He also deconstructs the myth around Rosa Parks and clearly shows his point of view
In conclusion, Barry Schwartz explains that oneness is due to a cognitive deficit but can’t be explained by that only. Oneness is also largely promoted by society and media. He wants to set the record straight, to establish the truth and he promotes the focus on history rather than what he considers as an unfair memory of the bus boycott. He is very critical of the exaggeration of the importance of Rosa Parks in the movement but he points out that oneness is a way to more easily understand an event or a period of history.
Modifié par lucile83 le 18-12-2018 08:22
Réponse : Correction/ présentation orale de laure95, postée le 18-12-2018 à 12:10:23 (S | E)
un très bon travail, juste quelques petites erreurs!
- He is (article) Professor of Sociology
- what consequences it has on society and on (on pas obligatoire)people’s mind.
- he uses a (a+ mot au singulier)symbolic aspects
- He states that (article) long term memory is almost infinite but (article)short time memory
- very few (few + mot au pluriel) information
- that is what we called (mettre au présent)selective memory.
- we often remember (article)présidents
- (article)Society needs oneness to represent ideals
- it would (verbe)more vague.
- Indeed we are more sensible to concrete objects (Rosa Parks) than to abstract concept (mettre au pluriel) (civil right movement)(pluriel).
-she was the one who were (faute de conjugaison)asked
- So why Rosa Parks has been chosen as a symbol?: ordre des mots ou enlever le point d'interrogation.
- He explains that Rosa Parks renown becomes (présent perfect)even more important as decades passed, (présent perfect)
- For example: the first row of seats on all buses remained (present perfect)empty,
- History texts talks more Claudette Colvin: mal dit
- even said that he’s (concordance des temsp) been robbed
- by (article)society and (article)media.
- to more easily understand: ordre des mots.
Réponse : Correction/ présentation orale de poulpouille2, postée le 18-12-2018 à 12:48:53 (S | E)
Merci beaucoup pour votre aide et votre commentaire me fait plaisir.
- He is a Professor of Sociology
- what consequences it has on society and people’s mind.
- he uses symbolic aspects
- He states that the long term memory is almost infinite but the short time memory
- very little information
- that is what we call selective memory.
- we often remember the presidents
- The? society needs oneness to represent ideals. Pourtant c'est un concept abstrait?
- it would be more vague.
- Indeed we are more sensible to concrete objects (Rosa Parks) than to abstract concepts.
- she was the one who was asked
- So why has Rosa Parks been chosen as a symbol? Je ne suis pas sûre d'avoir bien corrigé ici.
- He explains that Rosa Parks renown has became even more important as decades have passed
- For example: the first row of seats on all buses has remained empty,
- History texts talks about Claudette Colvin whereas commemorative media barely recognise them.
- even said that he’s (concordance des temps) been robbed. Je ne sais pas comment corriger ici : He even said that he was robbed? He has even said that he has been robbed?
- by the society and the media.
- to understand more easily
Merci encore pour votre aide
Réponse : Correction/ présentation orale de laure95, postée le 18-12-2018 à 15:26:33 (S | E)
- The? society needs oneness to represent ideals. Pourtant c'est un concept abstrait? OK. je fais appel à un joker et à un pur linguiste ou natif anglais pour te répondre.
- So why has Rosa Parks been chosen as a symbol? Je ne suis pas sûre d'avoir bien répondu. GOOD!
- He explains that Rosa Parks renown has became: became = preterit pas participe passé!
- History texts talks about Claudette Colvin: un texte ne parle pas en anglais, seulement une personne + utiliser l'adjectif formé à partir de history
- even said that he’s (concordance des temps) been robbed. Je ne sais pas comment corriger ici : He even said that he was robbed? He has even said that he has been robbed?: He even said he HAD been robbed.
Tout le reste est bien corrigé pour moi!
Réponse : Correction/ présentation orale de poulpouille2, postée le 18-12-2018 à 17:11:37 (S | E)
- He explains that Rosa Parks renown has becOme
- Historians talk about Claudette Colvin
J'ai aussi une question, dans la phrase : "The first row of seats on all buses has remained empty, a statue was erected and her remains were placed in the US Capitol Rotunda which is usually reserved for presidents, statesmen and military heroes." pourquoi faut-il utiliser le present perfect pour "the first row of seats on all buses has remained empty" et non pas pour le reste de la phrase?
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