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Message de dakuni posté le 20-03-2008 à 11:30:08 (S | E | F)
Le mot "lieutenant" se prononce et se transcrit comme suit:
/leftnnt/ en anglais GB
Qui pourrait me procurer une explication étymologique de cette transcription?
Réponse: Prononciation de 'lieutenant' de gee, postée le 20-03-2008 à 23:51:35 (S | E)
As the origin of English lieutenant is the French lieutenant (tenant lieu), the explanation of the pronunciation has not to be found in etymology but in the historical evolution of the pronunciation itself. That's not my field of expertise and I couldn't be of any help.
Réponse: Prononciation de 'lieutenant' de gee, postée le 21-03-2008 à 00:10:49 (S | E)
I have to qualify what I just said. In some cases pronunciation can be inflected by etymological guess by some experts.
Go to answers dot com. Here is an excerpt.
In 1791, English lexicographer John Walker lamented that the "regular sound" – /lju'tɛnənt/ – was not in general employ, giving the pronunciation current at the time as /lɛv'tɛnənt/ or /lɪv'tɛnənt/. Walker's prescriptive pronunciation – which represents the regular English naturalization of the modern French word – took hold in the United States over the course of the nineteenth century; while an American dictionary of 1813 gives /lɛv'tɛnənt/ and New Yorker Richard Grant White, born in 1822, claimed never to have heard the /lju-/ form in his youth, the /lɛv-/ or /lɛf-/ form was by 1893 considered old-fashioned. The great influence exercised on American English by Noah Webster, who insisted (but inconsistently) on the congruence of orthography and pronunciation, may be partly responsible for the eventual triumph of the "regular" pronunciation in the United States. In the rest of the English-speaking world, however, the "irregular" form remains.
The earlier history of the pronunciation is unclear; Middle English spellings included both forms like lutenand and lyeutenaunt suggesting the /lju-/ pronunciation and those like leeftenant and luftenand suggesting /lɛf-/. The hypothesis that the labial-terminated initial syllable arose as a spelling pronunciation conflating vocalic and consonantal v (the letters u and v were not distinguished before the eighteenth century) is rejected by the Oxford English Dictionary as "not [in] accord with the facts". The rare Old French variant spelling luef for Modern French lieu "place", on the other hand, supports the suggestion that the final /w/ of the Old French word was in certain environments apprehended as a /f/ /v/. The development of the αυ and ευ diphthongs in the Greek language, pronounced /av/ and /ɛv/, respectively, in Modern Greek, may lend plausibility to this explanation.
British naval tradition preserved an intermediate pronunciation: /lə'tɛnənt/. This is not recognized as current by the OED, however, and by 1954 the Royal Canadian Navy, at least, regarded it as "obsolescent" even while regarding "the army's 'LEF-tenant'" to be "a corruption of the worst sort".
Folk-etymological interpretations: "left-tenant"
In the past, folk etymology has associated the /lɛv/-/lɛf/ syllable with the verb 'to leave', drolly emphasizing that a lieutenant only took up his duties once his superior officer had 'left'.
Another folk etymology attributed the syllable to the fact that in typical propriety the person or persons standing to the rear-left of a gentleman held power and were typically those directly second to him. The person or persons standing to the rear-right were considered to have no or less standing than those to the rear-left, such as aides, bodyguards, wives, etc., often holding this position for simple facility rather than societal importance. This tradition remains in military parades, with lieutenants standing to the rear-left of the commanding officer (when facing the advance).
Réponse: Prononciation de 'lieutenant' de sitelle, postée le 21-03-2008 à 09:41:58 (S | E)
l'Anglais américain prononce :
Réponse: Prononciation de 'lieutenant' de dakuni, postée le 21-03-2008 à 09:54:53 (S | E)
Thanks for the precious information you gave me. It will open up to me new perspectives of research.
It's so kind of your part.
Modifié par dakuni le 21-03-2008 11:57
Réponse: Prononciation de 'lieutenant' de TravisKidd, postée le 21-03-2008 à 12:44:12 (S | E)
lieutenant = loo-TEN-nt